Introduction: Данная тема изучается с группой английского языка после проведения выездной экскурсии в Центральный музей древнерусской культуры и искусства имени Андрея Рублёва. (Адрес музея: Андрониковская площадь, д. 10). В залах музея студенты знакомятся с техникой написания икон, с сюжетами, изображёнными на иконах. Ниже приведённые задания способствуют формированию навыков чтения и говорения, а также пополняют словарный запас по данной теме.
Ex. 1: Answer the questions:
1. What can you see in the museum of Andrei Rublev?
2. Where is the museum of Andrei Rublev?
3. What other places can tourists in Moscow visit?
4. What Moscow museums and monasteries do you know?
Ex. 2: Study these words and expressions:
Ex. 3: Read the text and answer the questions:
MUSEUM OF ANDREI RUBLEV
Monastery, founded around 1360, stands on the high left bank of the Yauza River, which
flows into the Moskva River. Its ancient structures tower above crenulated walls with
tent-roofed towers: the white-stone Spassky (Saviour) Cathedral, built in the early 15th
century, and one of the most ancient surviving stone edifices in Moscow; the Church of the
Archangel Mikhail (1604); and the sloping roof of the Refectory Chamber (1504).
The church legend connects the appearance of the Monastery with the vow made by Mitropolitan Aleksii (died in 1378) during the storm on the Black Sea when on the way from Constantinople to Moscow.
There is a monument to Andrei Rublev near Spaso-Andronikov Monastery. The statue was executed by sculptor Oleg Komov and architect Veniamin Nesterov in April 1985. The monument consists of a granite pedestal surmounted by the 3-meter-high figure of the great icon-painter.
Andrei Rublev (circa 1370–1430) was a famous monk and icon-painter. He was one of the pupils of Sergey Radonezhskiy. Andrei Rublev painted icons and he lived in Spaso-Andronikov Monastery which is in the east of Moscow. His most famous icon is “Trinity”. Now it is in the State Tretyakov Gallery.
In the museum, which is in the church of the Archangel Mikhail, you can see an exhibition of Old Russian art. There are a lot of icons, for example: Virgin Mary, Christ the Saviour, Christmas icon, Easter icon and many others. The icons are of 14–18th centuries. You can also see old Bibles and coins there as well as fragments of wall paintings and various works of art executed in wood, metal and precious stones.
The tradition of icon-painting came to Russia from Byzantine, and the first icon painted by Luke, who wrote the Gospel, was Virgin Mary. Virgin Mary is sitting on her throne holding baby Jesus in her hands. She’s wearing a bright red cloak. In some icons, baby Jesus is close to Virgin Mary’s cheek.
Every colour in the icon has its symbol. Red symbolizes blood, green means life, while a blue colour is the symbol of sky. White colour means purity. Signs also have their meanings. For example, a circle symbolizes eternity.
The icon “Christ Pantokrator”, dating back to the first half of the 13th century, which was donated to the museum by the artist V. Sitnukov, is one of the rarest works of Russian icon-painting created shortly before the Mongol invasion of Russia. Jesus Christ is shown in the icon as Pantokrator, that is all-powerful, the creator of the universe. Painted in the Rostov-and-Yaroslavl lands, the icon has absorbed the traditions of both the mediaeval Russian and the contemporary Byzantine paintings.
Every holiday icon has its story. The Old Testament Trinity icon tells us about the story of Abraham and his wife Sarah. Three angels visited them one day and when Abraham and Sarah gave them some food and drink, they said that soon Sarah would give birth to a son and two cities called Sodom and Gomorra would disappear from the Earth because of people’s sins. Their prophecy came true. Only Lot, his wife and two daughters were saved. But Lot’s wife while fleeing from the city turned back to see the ruins of her native land, and immediately she turned into a pillar of salt.
The icon “The Old Testament Trinity” from Iosifo-Volokolamsky Monastery was painted by the icon-painter Paisii of Tver, who was a monk of that monastery. In 1484–1485 he, together with Dionisii and the latter’s sons, decorated the Cathedral of the Assumption, and it was at this time that he painted this icon. Paisii followed the Rublev iconography, but it was an essentially different piece of art that he ultimately created. This is the oldest icon in the collection, the author of which is known to us.
1. When was Spaso-Andronikov Monastery founded?
2. What does the church legend say about the appearance of the Monastery?
3. Who was Andrei Rublev?
4. Where did he live?
5. What did he paint?
6. What icons can you see in the museum?
7. The museum is in the Church of Archangel Mikhail, isn’t it?
8. Who executed the monument of Andrei Rublev?
9. Who painted the first icon of Virgin Mary?
10. What are the symbols in the icons?
11. What does The Old Testament Trinity icon tell us about?
12. What do you know about the Old Testament Trinity icon from Iosifo-Volokolamsky Monastery?
Ex. 4: Read the dialogue and play it in pairs:
– Excuse me, how can I get to Andrei Rublev Museum?
– You should go by subway till Ploschad Ilyicha station, and then go along Sergii Radonezhskiy Street, turn right at the traffic lights and cross the street. You’ll see a small park and the monument to Andrei Rublev there.
– Thanks a lot!
Список использованной литературы:
1. Центральный музей древнерусской культуры и искусства имени Андрея Рублёва. Путеводитель по музею. М., Пенаты, 2002.
2. Chernov V. Three days in Moscow. A Guide. Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1989.