Главная страница «Первого сентября»Главная страница журнала «Английский язык»Содержание №3/2008

Подготовка к экзаменам с опорой на текст

Для подготовки учащихся к экзаменам целесообразно проводить следующую тренировку с опорой на небольшие тексты. Тематика текстов – проблемы, с которыми может столкнуться подросток.


Growing up is often a problem for many teenagers. Here are some tips to consider in making your choices.

Bullies just seem to exist everywhere. A bully is anyone who appears to feel powerful when they hurt or pick on someone else. They do not need a reason, just a target, or victim. If you are a target or a bully, there are a few things you can do:

• Avoid the bully whenever possible.
• Walk or run away from the bully.
• Ask your friends to stick close. It is harder to pick on someone when they have friends standing up for them.
• Ask an adult (parent, teacher or counselor) for help.
• Be assertive. Tell the bully to stop bothering you, that you do not like it and will report the abuse if it continues.
If you see someone else being bullied, don't get in the way; you could be hurt. Instead, try one of these things:
• Find an adult to help ASAP (As Soon As Possible).
• Encourage your friends to be assertive (решительно настроенным) and tell the bully that his or her behavior is unacceptable.
• If you are the one doing the bullying, STOP! You do not have the right to make others feel bad, to threaten people, to tease people, or to cause other people harm.


There may be kids in your neighborhood who know about or are part of gangs, which can be pretty scary. They could be involved in illegal activities or hurt other people.
There are lots of reasons people join gangs. Below are just a few examples.
• They don’t feel like they have a family member that they can talk to.
• They feel left out and want to belong.
• They are drawn to the excitement of the misbehaving.
We suggest that you don’t get involved in gangs because people often get hurt. If you hear about a fight or rivalry, tell a teacher or trusted adult so that they can help.

После чтения и перевода текстов учащимся можно предложить выполнить следующие задания.
Задание 1 (для тренировки задания по письму на ЕГЭ, эссе с аргументацией “за” и “против”).
Comment on the following statement.
Some teenagers say that bullying can be stopped only if you ask your friends to help punish the bully. Others say that it could be dangerous and only adults can help.

Далее необходимо объяснить учащимся план написания эссе.
1. Введение. Начинать с общего представления темы (e.g. Bullying is one of the most common teenage problems…), подчеркивая тот факт, что относиться к этой проблеме можно по-разному: наказывать хулиганов самому, с помощью своих друзей или ждать вмешательства взрослых.

2. Основная часть. Представить аргументы “за” вмешательство взрослых (e.g. Some teenagers say that…) и “против” их вмешательства (e.g. Others believe that…) в двух отдельных абзацах.

3. Заключение. Подвести итог сказанному (e.g. All in all…). Выразить надежду на компромисс (e.g. One can only hope that…). Если есть собственное мнение “за” или “против”, постарайтесь коротко высказаться (e.g. All things considered, I believe that … In my opinion,…). Если лично вы за вмешательство взрослых в подобные конфликты, значит абзац с аргументами “за” их вмешательство из вашей Основной части должен предшествовать Заключению. Если вы против такого вмешательства и считаете обращение за помощью доносительством, то логично перед Заключением в Основной части поместить абзац с аргументами “против”, а уже в Заключении присоединиться к ним.

Необходимо ознакомить учащихся с некоторыми выражениями и оборотами:
1. Введение. The problem/issue/phenomenon of … is/appears to be/has always been …
The most worrying trend is …
Teenagers/People always say/have always said/thought/believed/agreed that …
One of the reasons for that is possibly the fact that…
It is a controversial/burning/hot question…
There is a dispute/discussion/no agreement …

2. Основная часть. On the one hand…on the other hand; Firstly, To begin with, Secondly, Finally, In addition, Besides, Moreover, What is more, Furthermore, However, Despite this, In spite of this, In fact, As a matter of fact, As a result, Consequently, etc.

3. Заключение. This would be the best way of… I wonder what other teenagers/people think about this issue. All in all, I am sure…

Далее представлены варианты эссе, написанные учащимися после ознакомления с текстом, заданием и объяснением, как выполнять это задание:
1. Bullying is one of the most common teenage problems. There are bullies in many schools. It is believed that bullies feel powerful when they hurt someone else. What can a victim do? It is a controversial question.
Some teenagers say the victim should avoid the bully whenever possible and run away. Besides, it is important to ask your friends to stick closer and help. You should be assertive and tell the bully to stop bothering you. Moreover, you can threaten the bully or cause him harm in response.
Other teenagers believe that bullies can be dangerous, especially if they are involved in gangs. As a result, they may seriously hurt you. It is better to report the abuse if it continues and becomes dangerous for your life. The victim should tell a teacher or trusted adult so that they can help.
All in all, I am sure this problem should be considered both by teenagers and adults. I can only hope that bullies will understand that it is wrong to make other people feel bad. Such misbehaving will spoil their life too.

2. The problem of bullying is not easy to deal with. A lot of teenagers are drawn to the excitement of misbehaving. They usually find targets who are weaker and don’t have friends standing up for them. Then, teasing and bullying start.
On the one hand, teasing and bullying can be harmful and very dangerous. As a matter of fact, it may result in fights and injuries. In this case the victim must stop the abuse and tell any trusted adult about the bully. Adults must help and do everything to stop bullying.
On the other hand, most teenagers believe that reporting is wrong. They don’t like people who tell teachers or parents about misbehaving of their classmates. Moreover, there are pupils who prefer to get hurt rather than tell teachers about bullying.
In my opinion, we shouldn’t report the abuse at once. First, it is better to talk to the bully. Some bullies are miserable because they don’t feel like they have a friend or a family member to talk to. They are left out and want to belong to any group, even if they tease and harm their classmates. We should be assertive and make bullies realize that they don’t have any right to cause people harm. I wonder what other teenagers think about this issue.

На устном экзамене в 9-х классах второе задание билета проверяет умения монологической речи:
Задание 2. Прочитайте текст и выскажитесь по проблеме, затронутой в тексте. Аргументируйте вашу точку зрения.
Задача экзаменуемого – сделать сообщение в связи с прочитанным текстом, высказать и аргументировать свое отношение к поднятой автором проблеме.
Для тренировки монологического высказывания можно также использовать тексты Say “No” to Bullying и Gangs, которые соответствует теме Teenage Problems. После прочтения текстов учащиеся должны уметь самостоятельно определить эту тему и построить свое монологическое высказывание, используя знания по данной теме, полученные во время прохождения школьной программы, и информацию из текстов. Например,
I think teenagers have a lot of problems. One of them is getting along with people around you. Some teenagers don’t get on with their parents and teachers. They want more freedom, start arguing with adults. They don’t have a trusted adult or family member that they can talk to. When they are punished, they become violent. I agree that they may be drawn to the excitement of misbehaving. They even may get involved in illegal activities and gangs. Smoking, alcohol, bullying allow them to show protest and feel powerful. In my opinion, this misbehaving is very dangerous.
I totally agree that all teenagers must say NO to bullying. No one has the right to tease people and cause them harm. It is unacceptable! I am sure that teachers and parents can help. Besides, it’s great when there are real friends who can stick close and protect you from any abuse. I believe I have real friends and I’m not afraid of bullies.

И. О. Ишхнели ,
ГОУ СОШ № 1738