задания к книге “Britain in Brief” В.В. Ощепковой и
continued from No. 24, 2006; 1, 3,
4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10
Text 6. Art Galleries
The National Gallery • The Tate Gallery •
Turner’s Paintings • Modern Collection
If you stand in Trafalgar Square with your back to Nelson’s Column,
you will see a wide horizontal front in a classical style. It is the National Gallery. It
has been in this building since 1838 when it was built as the National Gallery to house
the collection of Old Masters’ Paintings (38 paintings) offered to the nation by an
English private collector, Sir George Beamount.
The National Gallery
Today the picture galleries of the National Gallery of Art exhibit
works of all the European schools of painting which existed between the 13th and 19th
centuries. The most famous works among them are “Venus and Cupid” by Diego
Velazquez, “Adoration of the Shepherds” by Nicolas Poussin, “A Woman
Bathing” by Harmensz van Rijn Rembrandt, “Lord Heathfield” by Joshua
Reynolds, “Mrs Siddons” by Thomas Gainsborough and many others.
In 1897 the Tate Gallery was officially opened by the Prince of Wales
(afterwards King Edward VII) – eight galleries housing British art. Later it had
the status of the National Gallery of British art and the National Gallery of Modern
Foreign Art. In 1955 the National Gallery and the Tate became independent institutions.
The Tate Gallery
If you are interested in British art you should go to see the Tate
collection: paintings, a selection of sculpture, watercolours, drawings and engravings.
All the great names of British painting are included, among them William Hogarth, creator
of a distinctive national style; William Blake, the poet and painter, of whose works the
Tate Gallery owns the most representative selection in the world; George Stubbs, the
greatest master of sporting art; John Constable, perhaps the most loved of all landscape
painters; and J.M.W. Turner, certainly the greatest of all landscape painters. The
Pre-Raphaelites are also especially well-represented.
The collection of Turner’s paintings at the Tate includes about 300
oils and 19,000 water-colours and drawings. He was the most traditional artist of his time
as well as the most original: traditional in his devotion to the Old Masters and original
in his creation of new styles. It is sometimes said that he prepared the way for the
The modern collection includes the paintings of Henri Matisse
and Pablo Picasso, Marc Chagall and Salvador Dali, Francis Bacon and
Graham Sutherland, Peter Blake and Richard Hamilton, the chief
pioneers of pop art in Great Britain. Henry Moore is a famous British
sculptor whose works are exhibited at the Tate too. One of the sculptor’s masterpieces
– the “Reclining Figure” – is at the Headquarters of UNESCO in Paris.
In the 1980s and 1990s the Tate Collection was divided between four
Tate Galleries. Two of them are in London: Tate Britain, in central London, which contains
the main national collections of British Art from 1500 to the present, and which is known
for the works by Turner, and Tate Modern that contains the collection of modern art from
1900 to the present. Tate Liverpool opened in 1988 and Tate St. Ives in Cornwall opened in
About 100 million people a year visit over 2,500 museums and galleries
open to public.
the National Gallery Национальная галерея (одно
из лучших в мире собраний западноевропейской, в
том числе английской, живописи)
the Tate Gallery Национальная галерея
живописи Великобритании (имеет богатое
собрание национальной и западноевропейской
живописи и скульптуры конца XIX–XX вв.;
реорганизована в конце XX в.)
J.M.W. Turner Уильям Тернер (1775–1851),
английский живописец и график, представитель
романтизма; известен своими выразительными и
аллегорическими морскими пейзажами; его
творчество отличается пристрастием к необычным
эффектам – “Снежная буря”, “Дождь, пар и
Diego Velazquez Диего Веласкес (1599–1660),
Nicolas Poussin Никола Пуссен (1594–1665),
французский живописец, представитель
Harmensz van Rijn Rembrandt Харменс ван Рейн
Рембрандт (1606–1669), голландский живописец
Thomas Gainsborough Томас Гейнсборо (1727–1788),
английский живописец; наиболее известные
картины – “Миссис Сиддонс”, “Водопой”,
“Утренняя прогулка”; они полны
одухотворённости и лиризма
Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, Marc Chagall, Salvador Dali Анри
Матисс, Пабло Пикассо, Марк Шагал, Сальвадор Дали,
всемирно известные художники модернистского
Francis Bacon, Graham Sutherland, Peter Blake, Richard Hamilton Фрэнсис
Бэкон, Грэхем Сазерленд, Питер Блейк, Ричард
Хамилтон, современные английские художники,
представители модернистского направления,
характеризующегося разрывом с традициями
pop art поп-арт (направление в
модернистском изобразительном искусстве,
черпающее образы и формы из “коммерческого
искусства”, т. е. рекламных плакатов, объявлений
и т. д.)
Henry Moore Генри Мур (1898–1986),
английский скульптор; создавал пластически
мощные жизненные образы (“Мать и дитя”, 1943–1944), а
также фантастически изощрённые произведения
UNESCO ЮНЕСКО – Организация
Объединенных Наций по вопросам образования,
науки и культуры (сокр. от United Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organisation)
Complete the following sentences:
1. If you intend to see the London collection of paintings representing
every period and style in Western art from the 13th to the early 20th Century you should
go to __________________.
2. More modern paintings are held at _____________________.
3. The main building of the National Gallery was opened in ___________
to house the collection of __________________ offered to the nation by
____________________, Sir George Beamount.
4. Most of the National Gallery British paintings were transferred to
5. Today only a small collection of a few _______________ of British
paintings is exhibited at Trafalgar Square.
6. The Tate collection includes oils, ______________, drawings and
7. Joseph Mallord William _____________, a major English artist, who is
famous for his paintings of the countryside and of the sea, was traditional in his
devotion to the _________________ and original in the creation of _____________________.
8. Turner’s style had a great influence on later artistic movements,
II. WORD STUDY
Art or the Arts?
Do you know that art (singular, uncountable) is the
same as fine art and refers to painting, drawing and sculpture? Art
also means skill of drawing or painting. It has the meaning creative
ability in: Television is ruining the art of conversation.
As for the arts (plural), this word refers to 1) (fine) art:
painting, drawing and sculpture, 2) performing arts: opera, dance, cinema, theatre,
ballet, concerts, and 3) literature: drama, poetry, novels, short stories and biographies.
Complete the sentences below:
1. The Arts Council of Great Britain is a government organization
established in 1946 to promote ___________ generally in Britain, and in particular drama,
music and visual arts.
2. I was no good at __________ at school. What about you?
3. The government does not give enough money to ________.
4. We often include architecture and ceramics within the ______.
5. She is a great __________ lover.
6. Visiting an _________ gallery is a popular leisure activity for a large number of
7. What is on at the theatre on Saturday night? Have you seen the _________ page yet?
8. Most US cities and many smaller towns have _____ museums.
III. GRAMMAR PRACTICE
Read the text and fill in the blanks with prepositions.
Turner’s Progress to the Academy
Turner’s career started (1)_____ childhood, (2)_______ the
encouragement and support (3)____ his father. The elder Turner was a hairdresser and it
was (4)____ his modest little shop that his son sold his earlier drawings, (5)____ sums
ranging (6)_____ one (7) ____ four shillings [(8)_______ five and twenty pence (9)_____
today’s currency]. It was also (10)____ this shop that the proud father announced, while
cutting the hair (11)____ the painter Thomas Stothard: “My son is going to be a
painter.” That was (12)____ 1789.
To complete his education, Turner was admitted (13)____ the Royal
Academy Schools. He was already able to make sketches (14)____ the great masterpieces of
European painting, copy and draw watercolours. But it was still a long way from landscape!
(15)______ 1792 (16) _____ 1801 he travelled extensively through Wales,
the North of England, Yorkshire and the Lake District, and he focused his attention much
more now (17)_____ capturing the play (18)____ light, atmosphere, the spirit of particular
places. His oil paintings depicting mountain peaks, lakes and castles set against stormy
skies, gave dramatic light effects, which made W. Turner master (19)_____ English
In 1802 J.M.W. Turner was elected a full Academician (20)_____ the
Royal Academy in London.
IV. COMMUNICATION PRACTICE
1. Speak about one of the art museums you know or you have been to. Do
not mention its name. Ask your classmates to guess which museum it is.
2. Tell your classmates about an artist or sculptor, his/her life and
work, the most famous pictures or sculptures. Ask your classmates to guess their names.
3. Which three art museums in Russia would you advise a group of
English students to visit and why?
I. 1. The National Gallery; 2. The Tate Gallery; 3.
1838; the Old Masters; an English private collector; 4. The Tate Gallery; 5. masterpieces;
6. water-colours; sculptures; 7. Turner; Old Masters; new styles; 8. Impressionism
II. 1. the arts; 2. art; 3. the arts; 4. arts; 5. art;
6. art; 7. arts; 8. art
III. 1. in; 2. with; 3. of; 4. in; 5. for; 6. from; 7.
to; 8. between; 9. in; 10. in; 11. of; 12 in; 13. to; 14. of; 15. From; 16. to; 17. on;
18. of; 19. of; 20. of
By Viktoria Oschepkova, Irina Shustilova
to be continued