continued from No.5
Latin and Greek borrowings change in number according to the rules of declension characteristic of those languages: um – a (datum – data), us – i (stimulus – stimuli), a – ae (formula – formulae), is – es (crisis – crises), on – a (phenomenon – phenomena ). There are also specific changes, as “in index – indices (indexes”), “matrix – matrices (matrixes)”. The classical plural forms are characteristic of bookish style (scientific, poetic), while words that have come into common use, in colloquial speech have the regular present-day English plurals: cf. mathematical formulae – formulas of politeness; genii (= ghosts) – geniuses (people of great talent), sanatoria – sanatoriums, aquaria – aquariums.
a) radius, bacillus, focus, abacus; b) curriculum, referendum, bacterium, addendum; c) copula, amoeba, larva; d) crisis, thesis, analysis, neurosis; e) phenomenon, criterion, automaton.
oases, alumni, bases, symposia, encyclopaediae, paralyses, genii, calculi, scleroses, uvulae, fungi, moratoria, hypotheses, iambi, cumuli, media.
1. This place can well be called an oasis of culture. 2. The atomic nucleus must not be used as a medium of destruction, but rather as a medium of construction. 3. Every heavenly body revolves round its axis. 4. Through a microscope we can see such a tiny living thing as a bacillus, a bacterium or a larva. 5. A more detailed analysis of this phenomenon can be found in a specialised encyclopedia. 6. A fungus is a kind of a poisonous mushroom. 7. There is a strict criterion which makes it possible to support this hypothesis and to present it in the form of a mathematical formula. 8. An abacus is a very simple instrument for doing arithmetic. 9, A nebula is a cloudlike group of stars, too far away to be seen singly. 10. An alumnus of a university is person who has attended, or is a graduate, of this particular institution.
1. (mediums-media) a) We get the most information now from the mass... . b) ... are people who claim that they can communicate with the dead. 2. (formulas-formulae) a) These symbols are used in mathematical ... ; b) Quite a number of words are not informative, but used as special ... of politeness or etiquette. 3. (aquariums-aquaria) a) People use ... to keep live fish in the house; b) Oceans are, in a way, great natural ... for underwater life. 3. (content-contents) a) The unity of form and ... is an important requirement for a true piece of art ; b) How high is the ... of fat in this food? c) The police emptied the bag and examined its ... d) The Prime-Minister declined to go into details on the ... of his talks with the Chancellor. 4. (brothers-brethren) As ye (= you) have done it unto (= to) the least of my ..., ye have done it unto me (Matthew) 5. (snow-snows) Scot’s expedition perished in the ... of the Arctic while trying to reach the North Pole.
Collective nouns include such subgroups as: a) a family / families (group, class, crew, team, nation, government); cf.: My family is not numerous (= a unit) – My family are early-risers (= members of the family); b) luggage, baggage, foliage, leafage, furniture, cutlery (= knives, forks, etc.), crockery (= dishes made of china), hair, linen, money, fruit (more rarely fruits, to denote collectively various kinds, as in All the fruits of the earth; also figuratively: the fruits of labour); c) names of multitude (police, people, cattle, gentry, poultry, fowl, vermin), requiring the plural of the verb. Note: a people of the North (= a nation) – the peoples of the world; Italians are a people who are fond of music.
1. Every great thought belongs not to the individual but to the crowd that believes blindly in the force of its institutions. 2. President Lincoln is known to have said that it is possible to fool some of the people some of the time, but impossible to fool all the people all of the time. 3. Those were the harsh traditions of a people at war with their environment. 4. It was a square room, with good square modern furniture – even a piece of good modern sculpture. 5. Vermin are harmful parasitic animals or insects. 6. Apples, pears, bananas are all fruit. 7. A ripe fruit fell from the tree. 8. But where are the fruits of your labour? 9. He has twenty head of cattle on his farm. 10. In winter the cattle are kept in a warm shed.
1. The poultry (is – are) being fed in the back yard at the moment. 2. My family (is – are) great music lovers. 3. The Normans (was – were) a people of northern France, who in 1066 invaded the British Isles. 4. The police (is – are) planning a large-scale operation in these quarters. 5. (Is – Are) the police an indispensable institution in a democratic state? 6. A lot of linen (was – were) hung on the clothes-line. 7. The ship’s crew (was – were) lined up on the upper deck for a roll-call. 8. Who (is – are) your team playing next week? 9. Some cattle (was – were) grazing in the meadow. 10. The government (is – are) now discussing a new programme of action. 11. Most modern machinery (is – are) still imported.
1. Семья была против его женитьбы. 2. Моя семья состоит из меня и двух моих сестер. 3. Экипаж корабля сейчас отдыхает на берегу. 4. Вся ли группа с этим согласна? 5. У них новая мебель, вся из дуба. 6. Кого это ищет полиция? Она расследует убийство главного редактора молодежной газеты. 7. Какие вкусные фрукты! Откуда их привезли? 8. Этот напиток сделан из разных тропических фруктов. 9. Какие у тебя красивые волосы! 10. Зимой скот держат в загоне (stall). 11. Французы – остроумный народ. 12. Русский народ, как и многие другие народы, славится гостеприимством. 13. Итальянцы это народ, который любит петь. 14. Нацистская пропаганда всегда подчеркивала, что немцы – народ с великим будущим, особый, избранный (chosen) народ. Богоизбранным (God-chosen) народом когда-то также считали себя иудеи (Hebrews). Великая американская идея также базировалась на особой, мисси-онерской (missionary) роли народа Америки.
23. media, mediums; 2. formulae, formulas; 3. aquariums, aquaria; 4. content, content, contents, contents; 5. brethren; 6. snows
25. 1. are; 2. are; 3. are; 4. are; 5. is; 6. was; 7. were/was; 8. is; 9. were; 10. are/is; 11. is
By Valeri Gurevich, MPSU professor